Archive for October, 2014

Castor and Pollux Cult In Ancient Rome & Greece

Saturday, October 25th, 2014


www.thecultureconcept.com
Castor and Pollux Statues - Rome City Hall

Castor and Pollux Cult in Greco-Roman Culture: Flamininus at the Temple of the Dioscuri
Roman and Spartan Virtue

Roman general and Proconsul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, after his victory at Cynoscephalae (Dogs head) against Phillip V of Macedon in 197 BCE, liberating Greece with the aid of his Aetolian allies, went to Delphi, to the temple of the Tyndaridae. There, according to Plutarch, he dedicated silver bucklers and his own war shield, having the inscription made stating “O ye sons of Zeus, whose joy is in swift horsemanship, O ye Tyndaridae, princes of Sparta, Titus, a descendant of Aeneas, has brought you a most excellent gift, he who for the sons of the Greeks wrought freedom.” Why would he upon this great victory honor the twins, Castor and Pollux or the Dioscuri as they were called collectively, not part of the major Greek or Roman big twelves pantheon, gods who according to myth traded places between Olympus with the Gods and in the Underworld with Hades? It is my intention to explore some of the significance of the Cult of Castor and Pollux in Roman and Greek culture. I shall be focusing one the period when Greece became part of the emerging Roman Republican Empire in the second and third centuries BCE.


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Flamininus’s Roman and allied Greek forces vs Phillip V of Macedon and his allies at Cynoscephalae.

The example of Flamininus, celebrating the Tyndairdae (sons of Tyndareus) and the reference to Sparta is because that is the particularly Spartan name for the Greek Dioscuri (sons of Zeus) or in Latin Castores, has much to do with the politics of the time and that place, in which they symbolized more than other deities. There was nothing unusual about that mixing of religion and state among the Romans or the Greeks. Delphi was the center of the oracle of Apollo, and visitors from around the ancient world would go there for advice. This had great propaganda value for the Romans in promoting their role as the champions of liberty and peace as well as touting Flaminius’s own horn. The golden wreath placed at the temple of Apollo attests to this. “This will fitly lie on thine ambrosial locks, O son of Leto, this wreath with sheen of gold; it is the gift of the great leader of the children of Aeneas. Therefore, O Far-darter, bestow upon the god-like Titus the glory due to his prowess.”


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The temple of Apollo at Delphi, Greece

Why though the Tyndairdae or Dioscuri? There is a dual meaning to the Dioscuri as they were both the guardian spirits of Sparta who were embodied in the form of the dual kings of the city state, and they were also heroic representatives of the victory of the Republican Rome over its last kings. An examination of the role of the Dioscuri in Sparta shows that in mythology Castor and Pollux or Polydeuces as he was known to the Greeks, were both sons of Leda wife of Tyndareus ruler of Sparta before the Trojan War, hence the name Tyndairdae. Castor is traditionally the human son of Tyndareus and the Pollux the son of Zeus when he came to Leda as a swan. Sometimes their sisters including Helen were suspected as being children of Zeus and Leda.

Wikimedia Commons. ‘Leda and the Swan’ after Leonardo da Vinci

One egg contained the Dioscuri, Polydeuces being the immortal son of Zeus and Castor the mortal son of Tyndareus. From the other hatched Helen, and her sister Clytemnestra was the daughter of Tyndareus.

There are interesting symbols and myths associated with the twins. The caps, they are frequently shown wearing, called piloi, represent the cosmic egg from which they hatched, symbol of the heavens and the earth. Their alternation of heaven and earth, day and night, became identified as the personifications of eternity or the “everlastingness of the renovatio temporum” They were worshiped as savior gods in Ptolemaic Egypt where they shared a temple with the royal family’s divinities Philadelphus and Euergetes. These were the defied kings of Ptolemaic Egypt, and Theocritus a royally sponsored poet, wrote about the Dioscuri in his poetic “Idylls (eidyllia ‘little pictures’)” with a sophisticated court audience in mind, playing on their nostalgia for a more bucolic time, a term that is attributed to him boukolikos, meaning ‘about cowherds’. He was in Alexandria during this period of very deliberate syncretism on the part of the Ptolemy’s. Theocritus wrote his Idyll on the Dioscuri describing Castor’s death as being avenged by his father, Zeus crying “Ah! ‘tis no child’s-play to fight with the sons of Tyndareus; they prevail even as he that begat them prevaileth” This indicates that a cult of salvation may be associated with the Dioscuri. Perhaps this is a syncretic Egyptian practice attached to the Greek heroes. Kennell writes that the association with the Dioscuri goes back to the ancient Indo-European tradition of the Divine Twins, a tradition that he feels the conservative Spartans maintained in their tripartite distinction of the three social classes of “priest and kings, warrior and herder-cultivators” This ancient traditional division appears to have also been the basis of the caste system of the Aryan invaders of India.


http://vedicgoddess.weebly.com

ASHVINS or Ashwins, are the divine twin Vedic gods of the morning. They are horsemen who are known for their goodwill towards humans

This conservatism of the Spartans would have been very attractive and familiar to traditional Romans. If one follows the logic of the ancient traditions of the twins, the Romans may not have been adopting the Dioscuri so much as interpreting their own twin myths, reflected in the story of Romulus and Remus and associating the Greek twins with their own proto-Latin version from the time before the Indo-Europeans split. In the Indo-Iranian tradition the Divine Twins are often represented as horses. The Dioscuri in Quintilian’s version of the Simonides story, see below, were on “horseback (equis advecti).” As great horsemen it would seem strange that the hoplite Spartans, who had had little or no cavalry for centuries, would be so fond of hippes (cavalry) such as the Dioscuri represented. Roman knights or equites also may have seemed to be irrelevant in a world where the phalanx and the legion dominated, they also held the Dioscuri to be special protectors. Cavalry was the domain of the wealthy who could afford the upkeep of horses, but in the sense that they reflect ancient traditions from the steppe cultural past, which for the Romans and Spartans would have survived in the myths of the horse riding twins Castor and Pollux. In reality the Spartans had ended the use of cavalry at the time of the Second Messenian War about 630 BCE. At that time they “enacted egalitarian reforms eliminating obvious signs of wealth and establishing compulsory training for males as hoplites including the elimination of cavalry.” There seems to be an element of the early class divisions on the part of those who held the Dioscuri special.


Rider BM B1 wikimedia.org

A Laconian black-figured cup by Rider Painter featuring a member of the hippeus.
Rider with birds and a winged figure, perhaps Nike (Victory). Lakonian black-figured kylix, ca. 550–530 BC.

Pindar captures much of the qualities admired in the Spartans and the divine mirror of their self-image in the Nemean Odes [odes that would celebrate athletes in the Nemean Games], “For Theaeus of Argos Wrestling (?)444 B. C.” captures in these verses much of the essential knowledge we have about the cult of the Dioscuri:

But since Castor and his brother Polydeuces came to Pamphaës to receive a hospitable welcome, it is no wonder that it is innate in their race to be good athletes; since the Dioscuri, guardians of spacious Sparta, along with Hermes and Heracles, administer the flourishing institution of the games, and they care very much for just men. Indeed, the race of the gods is trustworthy.

There are several critical things mentioned in this poem, one they are masters of games where in Sparta as the guardians and favorite sons born just outside of town in Therapne, which according to archeological evidence is one of the oldest Bronze Age ruins, older than any on the site of Sparta proper. It was there that, as Michael Grant notes, “a sanctuary on three platforms, the Menelaion, from c.725: here the old Mycenaean nature goddess was resuscitated in the form of Helen, while the helpers of the goddess reappeared in the guise of her divine brothers the Dioscuri.” This harkens back to the idea of the original divine twins of the Indo-Europeans. They also represented the domination of the natural order of things, that of the just men.


www.theoi.com

Detail of one of the Dioskouroi twins battling a Gigante in a painting of the Gigantomakhia (War of the Giants). The demi-god is depicted as a horseman wearing a petasos (traveller’s cap). His brother is also shown in the same painting (see image below).


www.theoi.com

Museum Collection: Musée du Louvre, Paris, France Attributed to the the Suessula Painter ca 400 - 390 BC

These heroes engaged in adventures like Hercules. In one tale they captured Athens, with the aid of the Lacedaemonians and Arcadians, in order to bring back their sister Helen when she was kidnapped by Theseus. The tradition of defending familial and Spartan rights would provide some of the background justification for Spartan self-image as upholding the old traditions of virtue, similar to that of the Romans. The Dioscuri are seen as the equals of Hermes and Heracles which may say something of their importance as personal interveners for humans between the Earth and the heavens. This relationship is built in their mythology as Pindar continues in the next verse:
Changing places in alternation, the Dioscuri spend one day beside their dear father Zeus, and the other beneath the depths of the earth in the hollows of Therapne, each fulfilling an equal destiny, since Polydeuces [Greek version of Pollux] preferred this life to being wholly a god and living in heaven, when Castor was killed in battle. [60]


www.artinthepicture.com

Spartan Girls Challenging Boys 1862 by Edgar Degas

Among the Spartans the Dioscuri were major divinities. The youth who were undergoing the famously rigorous training called the agōgē. This was referred to above, as the compulsory military training, but it was more than that, it was a way of life for the elite youth of Sparta, supported by slaves and peasantry, they focused on the traditional role of huntsman and warrior. It was a tradition that had gone back to the beginning of Sparta periodically had been ended by reformers and then brought back as a return to the ways of Lycurgus the mythical reformer who established the traditions of Sparta. Kennell says “Castor and Pollux epitomized young manhood in Spartan eyes.” They were great hunters with Castor being attributed to having been the Spartan hound the Castorian. They were the inventors of the armed dances the youth would perform in their ritual training and they were the enforcers of fair play and were the great warriors to whose tune the “kastoreian melos,” the Spartans would march off to war. Youth would sacrifice puppies to the war god at the temple of the Dioscuri in Sparta even into the Roman period. This was observed by Pausanius who describes the quaint customs of the noble Spartans. He was a Roman tourist of the Second Century CE.


http://factsanddetails.com

Dog Sacrifices in Ancient Greece. From Attalus Museum

Spartan greatness intertwined with the Dioscuri is shown in a poem fragment attributed to Simonides in which he calls writes an elegy to the Spartan victors in the battle of Plataea against the Persians in 479 BCE. When one thinks of the Dioscuri the association with Sparta seems to have been common in the Greco-Roman world:

…Muse, as an ally to me, (if indeed) you do care for men who are praying.
(Deck out) also this (ornament, sweet to the mind, of my song), so that some-
one (may remember) . . . (of men), who (for) Sparta . . . the day of slavery . . .
(nor did they forget excellence) . . . high-as-heaven . . . (and the fame of ) these
men (will be) immortal . . . having left (the Eurotas) and the city (of Sparta) . . .
with the horse-taming sons of Zeus, (the Tyndarid) heroes and with wide-rul-
ing Menelaus . . . leaders of the city (of their fathers) . .

The Dioscuri were protectors not only of horsemen and warrior, they has a special regard for poets as well. Cicero in De Oratore describes a banquet where Simonides chants a lyric poem long on praises for Castor and Pollux. The host, a certain Scopas ridiculed the length of the panegyric to those patrons of poetry by only paying Simonides half of what he was due, telling him to claim the rest from the Dioscuri. Moments later Simonides was called outside where there were two young men waiting. Once outside nobody was found. The house collapsed burying all within. Simonides used his memory of where they sat, to identify the dead. He was called father of mnemonics after that as he used the experience to develop memory techniques.


blog.artofmemory.com

Castor and Pollux saving Simonides from the collapsing building

Flamininus had multiple reasons to be worshiping at the temple of the Dioscuri. He was about to embark on a war with Nabis, described by Plutarch as the “most pernicious and lawless tyrant of Sparta,” . The special aid of the Dioscuri was important to the Romans as well as the Spartans. Rome also had a relationship with the Castores or Dioscuri, who according to legend saved the Romans at the battle of Lake Regillus, Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis, then dictator of Rome, vowed to the Dioscuri that if they aided him against the Latin forces lead by the aging Tarquin former king of Rome, he would build a temple to them. Remnants of the temple which was built in approximately 495 BCE, and rebuilt several times since, exist to this day in the Roman forum. The temple was the site of the meetings of the Senate and speeches were given outside on its portico. Under the emperors it became a treasury.


www.brunolussato.com

Titus Quinctius Flamininus, 196 BC.

The Dioscuri were to both warrior peoples the Romans and the Spartans models of behavior and it was because of the affinity to these Gods that perhaps Flamininus’s dedication to the temple of the Tyndaridae.in Delphi was not the cynical action of a politician, at least not exclusively and may go a ways in explaining why he let Nabis make peace with Rome in 195 BCE instead of destroying the Spartans as the Achaean League desired. Flamininus announced at the Nemean Games given by Argos what amounted to an amnesty for the Spartans. .


www.ancientworlds.net

The Romans admired the Spartan traditions and part of that was a mutual admiration of those “horse taming sons of Zeus,” the Dioscuri, who appeared to support Flamininus’s victory over Philip dedicating the shields to their temple in Delphi as a form of sympathetic magic connecting to their support in the Battle of Lake Regillus. Later, in the 160’s BCE, Lucius Aemilus Paullus in his celebration of victory over the Macedonian king Perseus at Pydna had the story spread that the Dioscuri had shown up at the fountain of Jutturna to announce his victory in Rome just as they had for the victory over the ancient kings of Rome centuries before to announce the victory of liberty over tyranny. The Dioscuri were not just protectors of the elite horsemen, warriors and elite poets against insults, but also protectors of freedoms and rights. The Phygian cap has long been associated with liberty, as the egg shell origins of the cap was the result of the mixing of man and god. The cap symbol represents that liberty a natural right of man, and the cult of the Dioscuri was in itself perhaps a reminder of man’s natural liberty.


en.wikipedia.org
Image by John Leech, from: The Comic History of Rome by Gilbert Abbott A Beckett. Bradbury, Evans & Co, London, 1850s Flaminius restoring Liberty to Greece at the Isthmian Games

Unfortunately Wordpress does not pick up footnotes and this was written using that system. If you want to read the paper with footnotes you can contact: Garyrumor2@yahoo.com and I will gladly email you a pdf of the original paper.


muenzen-ritter.de

Roman Republican Coins, T. Quinctius Flaminius, Denarius 126 BC, VF

Ebola, Colonialism, & Scientific Imperialism

Sunday, October 12th, 2014


media4.s-nbcnews.com

Crews in Liberia removing the victims of Ebola to crematoriums.

Ebola is everywhere in the news, replacing Israel and Palestine, replacing Russia and the Ukraine, or typhoons in the Philippines, even IS beheading of westerners has had to play second fiddle to the prospect of the Walking Dead in our daily lives. I wrote a short introduction to the literature on Western Medical interventions in the rest of the world, as sort of intro to Medicine and Science of imperialism if you will. I am posting it for your pleasure below, as I have been so swamped with school and work that my ability to blog has been severely curtailed.


media4.snbcnews.com

Health workers suit up in for work in Ebola contamination zones.

“Historical Legacy of Colonial Medicine and Science: Some Implications of Consequences of Eurocentric Science a Literature Review”

The imposition of a model of scientific experimentation by the powerful developed nations in medicine and science has led to a debate about the nature of the western derived research oriented science that may not take into account the interests of the subjects of these studies. The model of bioethics and its universality when the discourse has been dominated by imperial, colonial and post-colonial powers since the rise of modern scientific medicine in the nineteenth century taints the science and medicine as it impacts vulnerable and less politically powerful constituencies. This dominance has come under scrutiny as the underlying motivations, of the so called scientific and humanitarian efforts of the western powers, is increasingly being questioned as a more holistic, human rights approach may be the path to social reform.


imperialglobalexeter.files.wordpress.com
Image courtesy of Wellcome Trust

Colonial Medical Practice

Looking at European practitioners of tropical medicine, Neill documents how the research and development of treatments for diseases in the tropics were driven by the assumed superiority of these representatives of the imperial powers and how their ethical systems based on an ideal of laboratory research resulted in the discovery of pathogens but limited in their approach to treatment. The researchers and practitioners ultimately served the interests of the colonial powers. Examples from the French colonial practices in West Africa established patterns that during an epidemic of Sleeping Sickness in French controlled Guinea and British controlled Serra Leone the health experts advocated and established concentration camps to isolate and treat victims with largely ineffective arsenic based medications. I think the study seems especially pertinent as it explains some of the background to resistance to medical practitioners in the current Ebola epidemic.


upload.wikimedia.org
The_Submission_of_Prince_Dipo_Negoro_to_General_De_Kock

Dutch Colonial Images

The Sleeping Sickness epidemic of the turn of the 20th century is speculated to have been the result of disruptions of the local ecology by the colonial enterprises were enough to set off an epidemic. Neill states “Even at the time, most people agreed that there was a relationship between the rapidity of the disease’s spread and large-scale colonial development projects, economic activities, and military conquest.” The medical culture and the political and economic system of colonialism conflicted as the needs of the commercial interests would thwart the best medical practices this created an us versus them conflict in which the medical practitioners ended up deferring to other interests.


venitism.blogspot.com

French African Policy

The development of an ideology of “pure science” by J.C. Koningsberger and others in the in the Dutch East Indies in the early part of the 20th century is shown by Goss to be another means by which the cultural imperialism of the west was used to dominate indigenous peoples. When, Indonesia was a Dutch colony, the administration and political elites utilized science, although real and useful, as a propaganda tool to justify maintaining its control of the region, especially in the post-World War One era. Nationalist sentiments among the aspiring classes of the native Indonesians who demanded research hospitals of their own to assume some of the responsibly and status of western science were thwarted by the colonial authority until just before the Japanese occupation in World War Two in Goss’s research. The Dutch system turned objective science into a tool for exploitation. It is ironic in my view that the lack of willingness to recognize the abilities of the Indonesian intelligentsia in part resulted in the independence movement. Instead of inviting the local people racist and cultural attitudes of western superiority fueled the resentment of those whom the imperial westerners were supposedly bringing into the enlightenment of the west as Said has so clearly expounded.


www.heathwoodpress.com

Blatant Racist Imperialism of the 19th Century

Science and imperialism are linked in the development of western science. Arnold shows that India had its own well developed medical traditions when the British gained ascendancy over the subcontinent. The Indian science has been considered to be degenerate by Orientalist writers as a result of Muslim occupation and the chaos after the breakup of the Mogul Empire. The mythology being that western intervention came to rescue a formerly advanced scientific tradition that had succumbed decadence, and needed to be saved from the vicissitudes of fate.
The introduction of the British colonial administration actually disrupted the development of Indian science and medicine which, Arnold shows, has until recently been seen as the introduction of British advanced scientific methods into a stagnant Indian landscape. Arnold states “The idea of a simple diffusion of a monolithic and progressive Western science into passively recipient extra-European lands has been challenged from several standpoints.” Diffusionist views, often held to be the model, considered science to be neutral and not culturally biased, now seems to be somewhat naïve. The idea of a passive indigenous population receiving dollops of western scientific medicine was and is not practical. The interaction between colonial administrations and indigenous subjects had to be mediated by the local practitioners and accumulated field knowledge on the ground. This can clearly be seen in the evidence of people in West Africa running from medical practitioners dressed like aliens, or even attacking aid workers if there is not a proper communication and cooperation.


Last edited by Blackleaf; May 11th, 2014 at 11:40 AM..www.prisonersofeternity.co.uk

British Empire Personified. Rule Britannia.

It is the hierarchical dominance of the British science establishment over the local colonial science and the increasingly marginalized indigenous science in India that is a hallmark of the dominant Eurocentric scientific paradigm that has pervaded science since the 18th century and led to the biases in medical practice to this day. This is reflected in the faith in the civilizing mission of western science and its breakthroughs in technology in the industrial revolution. Indian nationalists often accepted this model of following the western lead to modernity but others rejected it as leaving India always subservient to the West.

graphics8.nytimes.com/images
Photograph from “The Decline and Fall of the British Empire” (Corbis)

Members of a British army polo team in Hyderabad, India.

This model of development has had repercussions in modern attempts to fight out breaks of disease as well as the imposition of European based testing models on developing countries. Garrafa and Lorenzo point out that the US and other developed countries perform clinical trials in involving poor third world subjects and the use of double standards in research are a form of moral imperialism. The WMA General Assembly rejection of attempts by the USA to modify the Helsinki Declaration to allow this type of research has led to the American abandonment of the Declaration and developing regional seminars to train local practitioners to spread the model preferred by the US. This is a case of “Indirect Moral Imperialism.”


aldworthapworld.wikispaces.com

Scientific Racism.

Case studies such as that of clinical trials studying “the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV between pregnant women and their babies” used placebos in the control group, which was denounced as unethical. Other examples including the infamous case of the Tuskegee Syphilis study where patients were denied access to penicillin as Smolen writes among many others condemning these actions. The scientists doing the research did not inform the patients of the availability of the drug. Also the director of the program, one Dr. John C. Cutler, ran a program for the Public Health Service and the National Institutes of Health, in Guatemala where patients were deliberately infected with sexually transmitted diseases. This is a case of racist and imperialist medical practice. While there have been efforts to curb such blatantly unethical practices, as noted in the “Belmont Report,” it does not address the basic inequity of a system that pits powerful corporations and medical-governmental-industrial complexes against poor peoples around the world with little institutional support.


www.jillstanek.com

Doctors with ‘patients’ in Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment

Research done by Hewitt and Amola on the local cultural response to an Ebola outbreak in 2000 – 2001 in which surveys were done of students, adults and survivors of the outbreak among the Acholi people of northern Uganda has shown that practices of traditional healers have a sound basis. These include isolation of those suffering from an outbreak. Care giving is limited to survivors of an epidemic, or to the elderly, if survivors are not available. Placement of clear identifiers outside the house where the victims are located, and maintaining quarantine for a month after recovery of survivors are among these ongoing practices. This is thought to be a tradition that has preceded the colonial period and mirrors modern medical practice in many respects. Others such as refraining from sex and promoting harmony within the family were also recommended by traditional healers. The research found that other practices related to burial had a negative effect but that with communication between the local traditional healers and the health workers, the local people modified their practices. The ill ran away from ambulance’s sent to take them to the hospital largely because of the practice of not informing relatives of the death of the patient and a fear that westerners would sell body parts. Recommendations suggest a greater sensitivity to cultural practices and working with traditional healers rather than stigmatizing them. The study indicates that unlike the common belief among international health care workers that traditional practices are a hindrance to healing, that they can be helpful as local people have developed their own methods to deal with epidemics.


i.dailymail.co.uk
Guatemalan-STD-Experiment

Toumi takes the position that the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights argues for the medical education system to teach redistributive justice in global health care with an emphasis on the interconnected nature of the world and its heath. Instilling a bioethics that reflects the universal rights of man, there will come a generation of doctors who focus on the needs of the populace of the world as a whole. The need for this holistic approach is an argument that is hard to deny in the face of current world epidemics in which the neglected developing nation health care systems have become the breeding grounds of biological disease. In this there is a basis for hope that a genuinely redistributive allocation of resources will finally compensate for the imbalances caused by the scientific exploitation of the rest of the world by the western powers over the last couple centuries. The medical necessity of insuring global health security may point the way once it is clearly shown that western science has, while helping develop cures for diseases, also is implicated the generations of human misery.


cdn1.vox-cdn.com

Looks like my footnotes don’t transfer from word to my blog. If anyone has an idea as to how that works let me know. I am not really up to reformatting everything into MLA style at least not tonight. I will post the bibliography from a previous version, it is not comprehensive but at least it does list the sources I quote. I will have to go back in at some point and put in MLA in text citations, but as a blog, and not an academic paper this should be adequate.

Bibliography

Arnold, David. Science, Technology and Medicine in Colonial India. Port Chester, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2000. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 5 October 2014.
Garrafa, Volnei, and Lorenzo, Claudio. “Moral Imperialism and Multi-centric Clinical Trials in Peripheral Countries.” Cadernos De Saúde Pública, 24.10 (2008): 2219-2226.
Goss, Andrew. “Decent Colonialism? Pure Science and Colonial Ideology in the Netherlands East Indies, 1910–1929.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 40.1 (2009): 187-214.
Hewlett, Barry S. and Amola, Richard P. “Cultural Contexts of Ebola in Northern Uganda.” Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9.10 (2003) 124–1248.
Neill, Deborah. Networks in Tropical Medicine: Internationalism, Colonialism, and the Rise of a Medical Specialty, 1890–1930. Palo Alto, CA, USA: Stanford University Press, 2012. Print.
Smolin, David M. “The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, Social Change, And The Future Of Bioethics.” Faulkner Law Review 3.2 (2012): 229-251. Academic Search Complete .Web. 30 Sept. 2014
Toumi, Rabee. “Globalization and Health Care: Global Justice and the Role of Physicians.” Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 17.1 (2014): 71-80.


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