Posts Tagged ‘Biofuel’

Children Of The Corn

Saturday, July 12th, 2008

We have become a corn dependent nation. My wonderful angel and girlfriend has suggested that I write about this subject and the title is hers.
A corn dependent world. Corn is in the gas that fuels our vehicles and it is the most common sweetener in the form of high fructose corn syrup. It is now becoming so expensive due to its use as biofuel that people are rioting in places like Haiti of the cost of corn in its most basic use as a food.
What we think of, when we think of corn, is Corn on the cob, canned corn, and the frozen corn we eat. More recently we think of Biofuel, a seemingly benign use of corn. In Brazil they have become a Biofuel economy, the USA and in Europe it has become popular and senators have touted it as the path to energy independence.
From Foreign Affairs the excerpt from an article in 2007

“Summary: Former Senator Tom Daschle argues that corn-based ethanol offers many benefits — and few downsides for food stocks. Runge and Senauer reply.
How Biofuels Could Starve the Poor
By C. Ford Runge and Benjamin Senauer
Foreign Affairs, May/June 2007
Tom Daschle
The article “How Biofuels Could Starve the Poor,” by C. Ford Runge and Benjamin Senauer (May/June 2007), recycles the “food versus fuel” mythology that has been rebutted time and again. Despite the authors’ allegations, the facts are clear: U.S. corn is used to feed mostly animals, not people; converting the starch from a portion of the U.S. corn crop into biofuels is an efficient way to reduce the United States’ dangerous dependence on imported oil; and the recent firming of grain prices in the United States — and therefore the world — will help, not hurt, farmers in food-deficit nations. Most important, current production facilities for grain-based biofuels are a critical platform for launching the next generation of advanced cellulosic and waste-derived biofuel technologies.
There are a number of possible reasons for this (none of which Runge and Senauer cite). One of them is that only about five percent of the U.S. corn crop is used directly for human food; much of the remaining 95 percent is used to feed livestock. Another reason is that ruminant animals, such as beef and dairy cattle, get more nutritional value out of feed made from ethanol co products than out of other feed. The benefits are less great for monogastric animals, such as swine and poultry, but the market can still get the most bang for the bushel by converting the starch in corn into ethanol and then using the protein co products from ethanol plants for ruminants’ feed rations.
To be sure, short-term market gyrations will require adjustments, as was the case in response to the recent hikes in prices for tortilla flour in Mexico cited by the authors. But this will be a short-lived challenge because the market will rapidly respond to the increased demand for corn by encouraging farmers to plant more of it. The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that there will be as many as 90 million acres of corn planted this year in the United States and tens of millions of acres more planted in South America and elsewhere. If history is any indication, productivity per acre will increase year after year as technology improves the characteristics of seeds, including their starch content and ability to ferment. And in the medium term, of course, feed stocks other than corn, including nonfood cellulose, will become increasingly important as inputs for biofuels.
The legislation promoting a low-carbon fuel standard now being considered by Congress will attract investment for next-generation facilities that convert animal waste and other waste (replacing fossil fuel inputs) into biogas and biofertilizers. As energy costs rise, farmers will increasingly rely on low- and no-till cultivation techniques. And as their incomes improve, they will have more capital available to employ other environmentally friendly techniques. An acre of corn, one of the rare plant species to use a carbon-dioxide-efficient photosynthesis system, removes more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than does an acre of mature Amazonian rain forest, and next-generation biofuel technologies — including those using nonfood cellulosic feed stocks — will increasingly contribute to the critically important goal of reducing, as the author Michael Pollan has put it, humans’ “carbon footprint.”
Senator Tom Daschle’s comments reflect his longtime commitment to promoting corn-based ethanol as a member of Congress and now as a lobbyist for the ethanol industry. Whatever our differences with him over biofuels, they are not about politics; we supported his last race for senator from South Dakota. Nor are our differences due to a lack of familiarity with agriculture. We have spent careers in Minnesota analyzing agricultural trade and its impact on the environment and on markets for food. Finally, we agree with Daschle that corn-based ethanol will be at best a partial solution to our current energy needs.
But we disagree with Daschle on four of his points: [Ed. Note: I list three, you can read the article for the fourth and more] that U.S. corn is fed mostly to animals with few implications for people, that the conversion of corn into biofuel is an efficient way to reduce the United States’ dependence on foreign oil, that higher grain prices will help farmers in food-deficit nations, and that the current corn-based ethanol industry will be a platform for the next generation of biofuels, which will be made from cellulose and waste materials.
First, we, too, know that meat-producing animals eat more than half of the U.S. corn crop. But people do eat chicken, eggs, pork, steak; drink milk; and consume foods containing cornmeal, corn oil, and corn sweeteners. U.S. consumers spend over 20 percent of their food budgets on meat, eggs, and dairy. And the share of the corn crop used to produce ethanol will rise from less than ten percent in 2004 to an expected 20-25 percent of the crop next year. As more acres are devoted to corn, fewer acres are available for other types of dairy feed, such as alfalfa, or for table vegetables, such as green beans. As a result, milk and vegetable prices are rising. And as acres are bid away from soybeans and turned over to corn, the price of soybean-based feed is also increasing, adding to the pressure on meat prices. In March 2007, the U.S. Department of Agriculture forecast that demand for ethanol would push the prices of poultry, pork, and beef higher. The Wells Fargo economist Michael Swanson noted in June 2007 that the rising costs of corn and soybean feed also “have a direct and significant impact” on “oils, cereals and bakery products.” Corn-based ethanol, Swanson concluded, “is indeed responsible for the increased rate of food inflation” (even though it is not its sole cause).
Second, even if every single one of the roughly 90 million acres in the United States devoted to growing corn goes into ethanol — leaving none for feed, exports, or other uses — corn-based ethanol would meet only 12-15 percent of the country’s transportation fuel needs. Hence, ethanol’s contribution to reducing U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum today is marginal at best.
Third, higher grain prices are translating into an increase in the prices of staple foods around the world. For some, this effect could be another way beside trade liberalization to raise the incomes of poor farmers. But the ethanol boom’s distorting effects on commodity prices are hardly a substitute for expanded market opportunities for farmers in food-deficit nations. By definition, a food-deficit nation buys more food than it sells and hence is negatively affected by price increases. Most of the three billion people living on less than $2 a day are subsistence farmers with little or no surplus to sell or urban slum dwellers who consume but do not produce food. As consumers, they lose. Higher prices may induce more grain production abroad, but unless wealthy nations agree to import this grain by granting expanded market access to poor producer nations, it will be of no help to them. Finally, as the need for corn for ethanol production cuts more and more into U.S. corn exports, the United States is increasingly trading an export in which it has a tremendous comparative advantage (corn) for a product in which it has a comparative disadvantage (ethanol), especially vis-à-vis Brazil. This disadvantage is precisely the reason the United States has a 54-cent-a-gallon ethanol import tariff.”
See my posting ‘Biofuels Cause World Food Shortage’ from a week or so ago to see information about a recently leaked report from the World Bank about the rising price of food being directly attributable to corn being diverted to Biofuel use.
Riots in Haiti probably don’t raise too many eyebrows in the developed west where racist perceptions have led to a discounting of the value of human life in the third world and especially the black third world. But it is a concern for policy makers when the World Bank directly contradicts people like former Senator Daschle and soon to be former president Bush, in their claims that Bio fuel has almost no impact on the price of corn.

Another issue that has been in the news from time to time is the pollution from agricultural run off from corn production. In an article in the National Catholic Reporter, not exactly your typical foam at the mouth eco-terrorist publication there was this article about the poisoning of our water supply by our friend corn, in part.

“Water: Tapping a strained supply
“Water is the axis issue that intersects the world’s greatest challenges, from health, poverty and security to climate, immigration and environment, even financial and commodities markets,” said J. Carl Ganter, director of Circle of Blue, a network of journalists and scholars concerned with water issues worldwide. “We’re just beginning to grasp the stresses on our world’s water supplies.”
From its pristine start in Lake Itasca, Minn., until it flushes out into the Gulf of Mexico in New Orleans, the Mississippi River runs through or borders 10 states, gathers in the waters of its chief tributaries — the Ohio and Missouri rivers — and gouges a 2,300-mile water highway of vital economic and recreational commerce for the nation.
Years of bad farming practices in the northern zone of the river — Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois and Missouri — have dumped sediment, fertilizers and pesticides into streams, creeks and rivers that flow into the Mississippi with each rainfall.
The runoff endangers the health of river users, and ends up downstream in the Gulf of Mexico where it has produced a “Dead Zone” the size of Connecticut. In summer, cloudiness from suspended sediments blocks out sun and oxygen to certain plants and fish, upsetting the aquatic food chain.
As fishermen and shrimp boaters see it, farmers in America’s heartland are increasingly threatening the livelihoods of those who work in the Gulf.
Last October, the National Academy of Sciences called the Father of Waters “an orphan” whose state and federal caretakers have failed to protect it. In a detailed study by the Academy’s National Research Council, titled “Mississippi River Water Quality and the Clean Water Act,” the researchers urged the Environmental Protection Agency to enforce existing standards curbing phosphorous and nitrogen pollution.
Although the Clean Water Act of 1972 halted the dumping of industrial waste and city sewage into U.S. waterways, the act had little jurisdiction over farm chemicals and urban runoff. Moreover, states along the river have failed to set consistent pollution standards, allowing varying amounts of fecal bacteria, PCB contamination and sediment into its waters.
“The EPA has to insure adequate interstate cooperation,” said Gretchen Bonfert, program officer for the environment at the McKnight Foundation, which funded the report. “They’re the ones responsible for protecting water quality.”
Ten years ago the EPA urged states bordering the Mississippi to adopt specific limits on nitrogen and phosphorous pollution entering the river. It warned that it would impose its own limits if the 10 states had not complied by 2001. But to date, states have ignored the mandate with few or no consequences from the federal government.
“We’re not clamoring for new regulations; we’re asking for enforcement of the EPA’s existing regulations,” said Bonfert.
U.S. agricultural policy has long rewarded farmers who plant wheat, soybeans and corn while little compensating crop growers who use less fertilizer, reduce soil disturbance and employ better conservation practices. Although “corn for ethanol” may raise farmers’ income temporarily, it can have devastating long-term effects on America’s premier waterway and on the Gulf, Bonfert told NCR. “We shouldn’t have to do a tradeoff between energy and drinking water.”
There is much more on that subject that I will treat later. But back to Corn and its immense usefulness in to the American way of life.
In this story from the “Georgia Straight” We have this about food monoculture, the rice crisis and corn.

“Monocrops bring food crisis
By Alex Roslin
Move over, peak oil and global warming. A new crisis is exploding right now across the developing world: peak food.
Rising costs for staples like rice have sparked unrest across Asia, the Caribbean, and Africa this month, including food riots in Haiti that have killed five, strikes in Jordan, and rice-hoarding in the Philippines and Hong Kong.
Exploding fuel prices are largely to blame for a 65-percent jump in the cost of food globally since 2002. But that’s not the main reason for the current crisis. Ground zero is in the world’s rice bowl in Southeast Asia. A nasty epidemic of disease and pests has struck Vietnam, the world’s third-largest rice exporter, sharply cutting supplies of the food staple of half of the world.
The problems in Vietnam have quickly rippled beyond its borders. In neighboring Thailand, the world’s largest rice exporter, the price of medium-grade rice for export has doubled since the beginning of the year. In the Philippines, the world’s largest importer of the staple, the government has deployed soldiers to guard rice stocks, while President Gloria Arroyo has threatened to jail for life anyone who steals supplies.
Some exporting countries have started to limit rice sales abroad in order to build up domestic stocks, and the UN says food riots due to exploding prices for rice and other staples have hit a dozen countries in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, with 37 countries altogether facing food crises.
What caused the disease and pest outbreak in Vietnam? Some rice experts have said that’s unclear. “We’re faced with a lot of unknowns,” said Robert Zeigler—head of the Manila-based International Rice Research Institute, which developed high-yield rice strains in the 1960s—in an Agence France-Presse dispatch. “The fact is, they got taken by surprise and they had some significant yield losses that they were just not expecting.”
Devlin Kuyek begs to differ. He says the cause is no big mystery. It’s monoculture. Kuyek is the author of a book titled Good Crop/Bad Crop: Seed Politics and the Future of Food in Canada, which came out in December. He says the rice crisis is an example of the food-related calamities we can expect in growing numbers due to a looming “perfect storm” combo of self-imploding crop monocultures and global warming.
The new crops were bred in government labs—and today, by a half-dozen large seed companies that control the bulk of the $30-billion U.S. annual seed business worldwide—in order to maximize yield, not other characteristics, like, say, nutritional value. “They try to do the Coca-Cola or Pepsi of corn: one crop that could be sold everywhere,” Kuyek says. “What you see in corn today is nothing like what you saw before, traditionally. They’ve industrialized that crop to the hilt. It’s quite sad because it had so much nutritional value. You could essentially just live on corn.”
Because the new monocrops were poorly adapted to local conditions, the plants didn’t do so well unless sustained by massive amounts of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Little wonder that almost all of the world’s largest seed companies, including the likes of Monsanto, Syngenta, and DuPont, got their start as chemical manufacturers.
“A lot of diseases that had never been a problem started appearing during the Green Revolution,” Kuyek says. “All of a sudden, instead of adapting seeds to local conditions, the farm had to be adapted to the seed variety.”
The result of all this has been a tremendous loss of biodiversity. The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization says 75 percent of crop varieties have disappeared since 1900. Nine-tenths of the world’s calories now come from 20 crop species, with four making up half of total calories: rice, corn, wheat, and potatoes.”

I am going to provide you a link to this article because has a lot of good information about food biodiversity. It is much longer and has a lot of good information.
Am I trying to scare you? Remember the stories of the Irish Potato Famine? Do you want me to remind you? And yes, I am trying to scare you. Scare you into action. We need to keep this world from going to the dogs. Not that I have anything against dogs, despite my skepticism about a story about the death of super dog being appropriate fare for the lead story on NPR I am an animal lover, vegetarian, mostly and a believer in animals rights to procreate. I guess you could call me pro life. A good Catholic position. I am against animal euthanasia. Although I have been known to swat at flies and gnats, I have qualms even about that. But I am saying that we need to see the link, capitalism-industrialism-global pollution-oil dependency-monofood culture-militarism-war. It is all linked and the more we depend on these junk foods, the more we are going to depend on the blood of American boys and girls to defend our right to consume ungodly amounts of just about anything to our hearts content. I don’t think that obesity was what the founding fathers had in mind when they said we had the inalienable right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. I think the French may have gotten it better with their Life, Liberty and Fraternity, after all how many fat Frenchmen do you know? But I hear that has changed with the explosion of McDonalds and Burger Kings over there.
At least in India the have the good sense to burn down the fast food outlets when they try to open in most communities. I wish we had more sense here. But perhaps it is not too late, we can remember the inspired youth of 1968 and their slogans “La Beaute Est Dans Larue” or in America, “Do you deserve a Brick Today?”
Perhaps if we spend more time in the streets and less in front of the tube, we will shed some of that excess baggage. Corny as it may seem, we are not made to be consumers, we are made to be lovers. Don’t forget to come to the Southern California Peoples Library Sat. July 19th at 3 pm and join myself and European thinkers and workers in a discussion on how to revive the spirit of 68. See you there I hope.

Biofuels Cause World Food Shortage

Saturday, July 5th, 2008

I heard this on the radio this morning. It shows just how interdependent we have become. NPR was reporting that a British newspaper received a suppressed report from the word bank about western biofuel policies causing the increase in world food prices. Here is an excerpt and my own analysis.

“Secret report: biofuel caused food crisis Internal World Bank study delivers blow to plant energy drive

Aditya Chakrabortty The Guardian, Friday July 4, 2008 Article
Biofuels have forced global food prices up by 75% - far more than previously estimated - according to a confidential World Bank report obtained by the Guardian.
The damning unpublished assessment is based on the most detailed analysis of the crisis so far, carried out by an internationally-respected economist at global financial body.
The figure emphatically contradicts the US government’s claims that plant-derived fuels contribute less than 3% to food-price rises. It will add to pressure on governments in Washington and across Europe, which have turned to plant-derived fuels to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and reduce their dependence on imported oil.
Senior development sources believe the report, completed in April, has not been published to avoid embarrassing President George Bush.
“It would put the World Bank in a political hot-spot with the White House,” said one yesterday.
The news comes at a critical point in the world’s negotiations on biofuels policy. Leaders of the G8 industrialized countries meet next week in Hokkaido, Japan, where they will discuss the food crisis and come under intense lobbying from campaigners calling for a moratorium on the use of plant-derived fuels.
President Bush has linked higher food prices to higher demand from India and China, but the leaked World Bank study disputes that: “Rapid income growth in developing countries has not led to large increases in global grain consumption and was not a major factor responsible for the large price increases.”
Even successive droughts in Australia, calculates the report, have had a marginal impact. Instead, it argues that the EU and US drive for biofuels has had by far the biggest impact on food supply and prices.”

This report was leaked to the Guardian while the G8 conference in Japan is determining the future policies of the 7 seven most industrialized nations and Russia. It would seem to me that this ought to include China and India at least and probably Brazil in an expanded G11. The whole G8 concept is part of the old new world order that reflects a 20th century world view of who is a player on the world stage. It also allows certain of the newer world players off the hook when it comes to sharing in responsibility for cleaning up the world environment and dealing with the multiplying problems that are being caused by the rapid industrialization that has taken place over the last 2 and a half centuries.
This is not a matter simply of the bad influence from the rapacious days of western imperialism, when a few European powers dominated the rest of the world and the American Europeans exploited the western hinterlands of the United States. China and India have both got ancient cultures and imperial powers existed there that were simply unable to exploit the technological advances made in the west. The Japanese tried at first to cut out the western influence by limiting trade to a single port. This was ended by American gunboat diplomacy in the middle of the 19th century, when American ships imposed terms on the Japanese in which they were forced to trade. They rapidly realized that they would have to catch up with the west or be dominated and the Japanese rapidly modernized in the course of the later part of the 19th century. Beating the Chinese and Russians in a series of turf battles over who would dominate the north east pacific. They even occupied Korea, an act of aggression that is conveniently forgotten when negotiating with the North Koreans over a few hostages taken during the height of the cold war. For over half a century the Japanese ruled Korea with an iron fist, even notoriously forcing Korean woman to act as prostitutes or ‘comfort women’ as they were called, for the Japanese Army in World War Two.

Korean Comfort Woman-from

The Chinese did not fare as well as the Japanese. They had misfortune of having been forced by British opium dealers to allow a trade in narcotics that was enforced by the British Navy in the infamous Opium Wars of the early 1840’s. As a result of the war the British were allowed to sell opium to the Chinese and they were given a long term lease for Hong Kong. It wasn’t until the Communists took over and forcibly ended the opium trade that the Chinese largely ended addiction. Interestingly it was at that exact same time that the British gave up control of India. Could the loss of the lucrative Opium trade have anything to do with the decision to give up the Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire? Opium was grown in India and sold in China.
Is it any wonder that the Chinese don’t feel any strong compulsion to agree to the same terms of restriction on its economic growth? They feel that they were forcibly stunted by British policy. Opium is a good pain killer and allows one to tolerate intolerable conditions over a long period of time. When an entire nation is subject to that narcotic for a full century, the effect can be devastating if not carefully monitored and kept to its socially appropriate usage, pain killing, and the occasional revelation of an opium dream. But extended use over a vast swath of the population will cause a certain lethargy and lack of initiative that could be responsible for the inability of the Chinese to modernize adequately until after the communists enforced stern social control measures.
The situation in India is complicated by direct control of at least half of the country by the British in the 18th and 19th centuries. Taking advantage of the weakness of the Moguls and the antagonism between Hindus and Moslems, the British were able to get rid of their French rivals and then exploit the situation in the country to exert direct and indirect control. The British took Indian raw materials for processing of materials in British Factories and then exported finished goods to India for resale. This kept British factories busy and Indians dependent on British manufacturers.
Gandhi and his fellow nationalists tried to get the Indian people to boycott British manufacturers and to weave their own clothes out of their own home manufacturing. It was an attempt to break away both from British control by non violent methods. It met with mixed results until world war two when under the threat of attack by the Japanese armies in Burma the British essentially promised independence if the Gandhi led movement would not interfere with the British war effort which depended on Indian cooperation since the British military could not have coped with a revolt in India and they were deathly afraid of an Indian Army that had been formed by the Japanese out of Indian prisoners of war captured with the fall of Singapore in early 1942. It was dedicated to the liberation of India from British rule and worked with the Japanese in Burma.
The capture of masses of Japanese military supplies by the Russians in 1945 from Manchuria immensely aided the Chinese Communists in their take over of China from the Nationalists. So did the British fear of an Indian resistance armed with Japanese weapons lead to the independence of India. Both situations, that in India and that in China, were ones in which the new leaders did not have any reason to be particularly fond of the western powers. And as such they now have a commitment to their peoples to catch up with the west economically after over a century of exploitation by the west. They now feel they are in position to participate as full fledged players in the international economy. From their perspective the arguments from the west that they now have to accept the same standards of pollution controls seem disingenuous. They want us to lead the way. If they have to tie one arm behind their back economically speaking, they want to make damn sure the G8 are already doing it and in spades.
That is essentially the situation, People in Asia and the rest of the world have long memories and we in the west, especially Americans, have none. What memories we do have conveniently portray the last three centuries as ones of almost total material improvement world wide lead by the west. It does not mention that fact that the development of the west came at the expense of the rest of the world.
Slave labor, especially from Africa and coolie labor from China, developed America on the backs of these exploited people. The Chinese were kept in line through a steady supply of Indian Opium in conjunction with racist policies on the part of the White Californians. The African peoples were enslaved in the American South until the Civil war ended direct enslavement but did not end intimidation and racist exploitation until very recently. Even 50 years ago there were lynching in the American South of American Blacks and to this day they are disproportionately incarcerated in the United States. This is a direct legacy of slavery and racism in America. Africa itself was conquered in the course of the 19th century by European powers seeking cheap resources to fuel their own industrialization to emulate the British who had a half century or so head start. They rapidly destroyed their own natural resource base to develop the industrial powerhouse that they became. Enclosing the common lands, impoverishing the average British citizen, forcing them into the new factory towns where they found themselves working for pennies in dank conditions that became the source of the Marxist analysis of Capitalism. Marxism is the child of capitalism. Capitalism is the reason the world is in the mess it is in now.
As we work out the means to save the planet we have to face the facts, that our ruling classes have screwed things up good, just for a fist full of Dollars. Now the rest of the world wants their turn at the good life, and we have to tell them there isn’t enough to go around. The only way they will buy that is if we cut our consumption down radically. Force them to find ways to develop their own national resources without going through the materialist binge we have in the west. Good luck to that. First we have to stop telling the world how great it is to be rich. Then we have to start walking the talk. It’s that or, we will have hell to pay when the food riots spread past Haiti and the other lands of the very poor. Is anyone ready to give up their fat SUV lifestyle? Let’s start with our own rich. If we don’t put them on enforced diets, how will the rest of us ever want to give up anything? It has to start with the next president; He must know that the people demand a curb on the excesses of capitalism. It has to be shown that the problems in the environment come from the conspicuous consumption that capitalism encourages. It is not merely a matter of moving a few things around. We can see from the food crisis around the world caused by our attempts to use food for fuel that we have to change our ways, and soon. Starting today! It is called simple living, or the new American dream.

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